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The Kobe Earthquake 1995
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Haiti Earthquake 2010
Japanese Earthquake 2011

The tsunami caused by the Japanese earthquake
source: mlive
 

Japanese Earthquake 2011
(please note this page is work in progress)

 
 
 
   

What?
An earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter Scale struck off Japan's north-east coast, about 250 miles (400km) from Tokyo at a depth of 20 miles.

When?
The magnitude 9.0 earthquake happened at 2:46pm (local time) on Friday March 11, 2011.

Where?
The earthquake occurred 250 miles off the North East Coast of Japan's main island Honshu.

Japan Earthquake Map

Why?
Japan is located on the eastern edge of the Eurasian Plate. The Pacific Plate, which is an oceanic plate, subducts (sinks under) the Eurasian Plate, which is a continental plate, to the east of Japan. This type of plate margin is known as a destructive plate margin. The process of subduction is not smooth. Friction causes the Pacific Plate to stick. Pressure builds and is released as an earthquake.

Map to show Japan and Tectonic Plates
source: IBN Live

So What?

The earthquake occured at a relatively shallow depth at 20 miles below the surface of the Pacific Ocean. This, combined with the high magnitude, caused a tsunami (find out more about how a tsunami is formed on the BBC website).

MAp of area affected by the Japanese earthquake
source: BBC News

The tsunami struck the north eastern coast of Honshu.

Japan's worst previous earthquake was of 8.3 magnitude and killed 143,000 people in Kanto in 1923. A magnitude 7.2 quake in Kobe killed 6,400 people in 1995.

 
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How earthquakes cause Tsunamis - BBC Website (video clip)


 
     
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